Annual Crop Fibers Papermaking fibers derived from plant harvested on a seasonal basis such as wheat straw, rice straw etc.
Paper manufactured under alkaline conditions, using additives, basic fillers like calcium carbonate and neutral size. As a result of the "smeary" grinding, the fiber structure closes homogeneously. Capacity[ edit ] The length of the embedded message determines two different main classes of digital watermarking schemes: Alkaline Pulping Pulping by alkaline solutions of sodium Paper on watermarking, with or without sodium sulfide.
Perceptibility[ edit ] A digital watermark is called imperceptible if the original cover signal and the marked signal are perceptually indistinguishable.
While the modification may not be malicious, the term Paper on watermarking arises from copyright protection application, where third parties may attempt to remove the digital watermark through modification. Source tracking different recipients get differently watermarked content Broadcast monitoring television news often contains watermarked video from international agencies Video authentication Software crippling on screencasting and video editing software programs, to encourage users to purchase the full version to remove it.
The message is an n-bit-long stream. This should not be confused with perceptual, that is, watermarking which uses the limitations of human perception to be imperceptible.
Anti Rust Paper Paper containing added substances which give it the property of protecting the surfaces of ferrous metals against rusting. Air Permeability Commonly referred to as " porosity. Approach Flow System The stock flow system from Fan pump to headbox slice.
Aging also causes reduction in brightness and yellowing effect. Air Drying Using hot air to dry pulp or paper sheets. Aluminium Foil Lamination The combination of thin Aluminium foil with a paper backing used as a positive moisture barrier.
Normal combination is kraft backing with Aluminum foil laminated to the kraft by means of asphalt, adhesive, or polyethylene. Asphalt Laminated Paper Two sheets of natural kraft paper laminated in a single ply by means of asphalt.
Against the Grain Cutting, folding or feeding paper at right angles to the grain or machine direction of the paper. Applicator Means of applying the aqueous coating, sizing or coloring to the paper web. Air Knife Coater A device that applies an excess coating to the paper and then removes the surplus by impinging a flat jet of air upon the fluid coating, leaving a smooth, metered film on the paper.
Aging Test An evaluation of products and raw materials in the pulp and papermaking process based on an accelerated artificial aging procedure to determine the extent that physical and chemical properties will change with time.
Alkali Lignin Lignin obtained by acidification of an alkaline extract of wood. Modifications to an original work that clearly are noticeable, commonly are not referred to as watermarks, but as generalized barcodes.
The portion of the pulp or other cellulosic material that will not dissolve in If the signal was unmodified during transmission, then the watermark still is present and it may be extracted.A.
A4 (size) A common ISO A-size of about /4 by /4 inches or x mm. For all sizes see International Paper and Board Sizes. Abaca A fiber also known as manila hemp or manila fiber, prepared from the outer sheath of the stems of manila.
The information to be embedded in a signal is called a digital watermark, although in some contexts the phrase digital watermark means the difference between the watermarked signal and the cover signal.Download